Usually the key components of e-commerce are distinguished between electronic commerce between businesses (B2B), between consumers and businesses (B2C) and that between consumer each other. Each state can have a different approach to collecting sales tax, and shipping costs can also vary based on location. The advent of online shopping gave retailers one more way to classify consumer with similarities and provide apparent differences from earlier shoppers. Kim (2004) further defined internet shopping as examining, searching for, browsing Also the level of perceiving fun, females are higher than males. This chapter reviewed the e-consumer behaviour theories form the synthesis of three different aspects, the e-shopper buying behaviour can be differentiated by consumer orientation and technology orientation, by utilitarian and hedonic motivations and by factors which can be controlled by marketers. The advantages of buying online are that it is quick, prices are usually lower priced, descriptions and comments can be seen by past customers. According to Aquino (2005), Importance of computer application is increasing day by day, In the latest decades of the millennium winning organizations are those which are willing to integrate business strategy and computer information technology The advantage of buying online can be that you are not physically able to touch the product and it usually takes a few days for delivery. The advantages of selling online is that you are able to reach a large audience, you are able to sell multiple items at low low costs without having a store and at times without even having a product or service. The combination of chapter 3 and chapter 4, will provide the essential elements acting as a basis for online shopping behaviour new framework development and aid conceptualisation and evaluation of online shopping behaviour theory. Nowadays the technology allows e-consumer to purchase through mobile and use e-retailing anywhere. However, when businesses moving into the multi-channel, how to improve the channel has been a focus, another issue the multi-channel should face I how to drive customer to the channel with out offending other channel members. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is one of the most commonly used frameworks for this purpose. The disadvantages of selling online is that your customers may find lower prices at other competitors, the internet is a large place and you have to carve out a niche market for you and your online products and services. 5 Secrets to Selling Products Online 1. While the report does not have any explanation on the philosophical background or assumptions of phenomenological theory as a research method, the author explicitly identified the source of the theoretical framework, enumerated the steps entailed in this method and justified its use as being appropriate to the purpose of the study. Then you do not need any web experience or programming knowledge. a theoretical framework for the online consumer response process. The benefits of opening an online store are endless: 1 . These three key models of E-commerce B2B (e.g. The usage of internet positively affects the consumers' attitude towards online shopping, predicts online shopping intention and influences the frequency of e-shopping. (Parsons,2002)More recent researches reflect the functional benefits are no longer engage online buying; actually e-consumers increasingly tend to enjoy hedonic attributes online. 2. McCormic believed that ease of use, visual appearance, information quality and interactivity are considerations of online environment building up. characteristics and the perception of shopping benefits ", International Journal of Getting customers for your business is always a tedious task. Perceived risks . According to Nua Internet survey (2002) which showed that 60 percent clients who have a negative shopping experience either online shopping or store shopping tend to change opinions and select another brands to purchase, and also underline web experience has positive effects on traditional channel. A key component of the implementation process is identifying potential barriers and facilitators that need to be addressed. (Vijayasarathy and Jones, 2000; Forsythe and Shi, 2003; Featherman and Pavlon, 2003, Bourlakis et al. We’re excited to share our five secrets for successfully selling products online. In the same year, an estimated 62,000 UK businesses were selling online to households. These variables are perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment. 2. (Dennis et al., 2004) Donthu and Garcia (1999) characterized e-shoppers as following: However, over one decade there are more or less changes in characteristics of consumer. (Parson, 2002) Go global overnight – increase sales opportunities by gaining instant access to a wider marketplace. Reducing order-processing costs – customer orders can automatically come straight into your orders database from the website. Theoretical Background Offline and Online Consumer Decision-making Process The process of making decision are very similar whether the consumer is offline or online. Theoretical Background of Amazon. continue to struggle with how effectively to market and sell products online" (Joines et al., 2003, p. 93, McCormic, H. (2009) Analysing and Conceptualising the Online Fashion ShoppinG Environment 550 Accordingly in this chapter e-consumer behaviour literature review will be executed from these two aspects. words(double Analysing, and The next chapter will review the literature associated with the online shopping market, Chapter 3 will review the literature associated with consumer behaviour models; Chapter 4 will review literature related the variables affecting online shopping behaviour, Sites delivering superb Web experience are designed in a way not only addressing the client's product needs and expectations but also assisting the customers through the steps of the buying process that many online firms still do not completely understand the needs and behavior of the online consumer (Lee, 2002) while many of them ". (Vijayasarathy and Jones, 2000; Featherman and Pavlou, 2003) You can sleep but your store never will – with your online shop open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, you increase the number of customers who can shop your selection, further increasing your opportunity for sales. Here you will also find the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your research paper well-formatted and your essay highly evaluated. (Bridges and Florsheim, 2008) Thus, customers who has positive attitude about one web site are more satisfied and more likely to make purchase. (Forsythe and Shi, 2003) There are many key issues affect consumer trust in internet shopping, for instance, credit card assurance policies, product warranty policies, policy on returned products, availability of escrow service, and ability o fuser friendly, reliable, efficient web navigation and animated shopping environment. Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser or a mobile app. (Venkatesan et al., 2007) due to they purchase more, they have greater familiarity with company, Kumar and Venkatesan (2005) considered that multi-channel customers are more valuable, make channels retailer used are more effectively. However, many online companies still struggle with understanding their target consumer and do not know how to driving online channel (Jonies et al., 2003) Over 20 million UK adults shopped online in 2005, with 56 per cent of internet shoppers participate in the survey having spent over £500 each during the year. Reduce your costs – setup and operational costs are much less than selling from a hysterical store, directly improving your bottom line. Another one, the internet application increase consumer price sensitivity, e-shopper can easily make a price comparison from different retailers. Consumers today have many categories of shopping choice, they can choose one of category for themselves which is they like and suit for them. Agenda • The Basics • Beginning to Sell Online • Marketplaces • Developing your own eCommerce Website • Understanding Costs and other fundamentals • Multi Channel Software • Measuring eCommerce Selling Online 3. Retailers make the consumers perceive ease of use and usefulness of website through controlling these elements. Through Brand loyalty to retain customers is the key point for consumer e-loyalty and retailers recognize. (Xu, 2008) Ha and Stoel's (2004) found that females likely to be more innovative and use the internet more frequently for searching information about apparel product than male consumers. (Wasserman and Richmond-Abbott, 2005). The next chapter will evaluate and analyse consumer behaviour theory literature to provide the fundamental concepts for understanding consumer behaviour theory in the international online shopping context. Personal Selling; Personal selling defines as hand to hand exchange goods and money or Face-to-face selling in which a seller attempts to persuade a buyer to make a purchase. * Improving your offerings using the data gathered by tracking customer purchases. But people think that online business is relatively simple and Just dunk into it. (Samadi and Yaghoob-Nejadi, 2009) Perceived risk is a function of the uncertainty when making a purchase that may have unpleasant outcomes, (Forsythe and Shi, 2003) which strongly affect consumer behaviour, because people do not want to make mistakes. 2004; McCormick, 2009), First of all, for retail companies in term of location is the most important. Theories of Selling 1. Want to add some juice to your work? The following literature review will carry out in turn base on this framework. The differences are that one is consumers in current e-retail marketing are inclined choose products and services from a well-branded retailer internet channel; this is the reason some successful retailers are also successful in online marketing. The Impact Of Personal Selling On Sale Volume of mobile phones in Calabar municipality. Holsapple and Singh (2000) provided a five-cluster taxonomy of E-commerce definitions, The five clusters are: the trading view, the information exchange view, the activity view, the effects view, and the value-chain view, also they advanced an integrated definition of E-commerce: (Holsapple and Singh, 2000, p164) About employment status, Xu and Paulins (2005) found that students' attitudes about e-shopping for apparel products are affected by employment status, they indicated that compared with non employed students, students who have employment either full time or part time, have limited free time, may experience more time pressures, thus employed students choose online shopping in their working counterparts than in their leisure time. Xu, X.G. (Dennis et al. Available from: Orientation of consumer behaviour research and make an initial analyzing changes of e-shopper behaviour from past to now. (Pellegrini, 2005) This is not a comprehensive definition, Pellegrini (2005) mentions it can be extended in tow ways, it could be a retailer using all of channels, both physical (different store formats) and virtual (TV, the internet, catalogues) otherwise, it could be summarized as respect to the retail environment and the choice of channels open to consumers, without making reference to a specific retail company. Thus, retail business face a huge challenge with a potential impact not encountered since the industrial revolution - surviving in a business model that includes the Internet. "Electronic commerce is an approach to achieving business goals in which technology for information exchange enables or facilitates execution of activities in and across value chains as well as supporting decision making that underlies those activities." (Marketing) ABSTRACT The study evaluated the impact of personal selling on sales volume. The following chapter will review the literature of online environment affecting online shopping behaviour in detail to further support research progressing. 2001; Shang et al. As the internet is growing and increasing on a daily basis and computers being in every home the ability to buy and sell directly online has become the internet number one commodity. (2003) status that e-shoppers tend to pay attention on functional and utilitarian, they are younger than average and more be male, usually have higher education level and social status. The level of a perceived risk depends on many factors; Fenech (cited in Dennis, 2004) status that risk is a multi-dimensional construct for online shopping. Sell to the entire country and even abroad! This is relevant with an integrated framework for e-store design provided by Dennis (2004), Navigability, Web atmospherics and interactivity are the components of website design, Dennis discussed that navigability and interactivity are the technical components that navigability as the fundamental block of e-store design and progress to interactivity, and web atmosphere has similarity with traditional store environment. (Cai,Y. First it overcomes the limitation of primary existing retail format, retailers can expand spaces which make more merchandise can be displayed and more assortment can be offered, provide more detailed information of products; second, retailer can reach out to new market and expand customer base through electronic channel; third when customers visit website of retailer, over forty percent of these customers tend to make purchase in retailer's physical store, this is to some extent stimulate the growth of sales; fourth, an electronic channel can help retailer gain valuable information about how and why customers shop and are satisfied or not, meanwhile get a better understanding of consumers' shopping behaviour, (Levy, M. and Weitz, B. Want to get a price estimate for your Essay? The process of online buying behavior consists of five steps and it is similar to traditional shopping behavior (Liang and Lai 2000). Considering these factors, you cannot afford not to sell online. Privacy policy | Website terms of use | XML sitemap, Background information about online shopping market, Furthermore a continuous cost will be fulfillment and logistics; Legal problems must be considered, if retailer and consumer are not in the same countries, may be the conflict between law and taxation will come up; another disadvantage is that costumers tend to impulse purchases when they have touch, feel or smell the products, which e-selling can not provide. (Childers et al. (Chang et al., 2005). / Procedia Economics and Finance 35 ( 2016 ) 401 – 410 4. There are several reasons of traditional retailers are paying more attention on their electronic channel and evolving into multichannel retailers. Usually the elements may refer to security features of sites, website layout and linkages to other websites (O' Cass, and Fenech 2003) which are relevant with technical specification of an online store. Cost factor is the biggest advantage of selling your products online. We’ve seen what works and what doesn’t, and we’ve put together a recipe for doing it successfully. Introduction. : Cisco) is viewed as dealing with manufacturing and wholesale activity, and B2C (e.g. They also know that there is a crowd of people like college students who are highly price sensitive so to balance the traffic they adopt such strategies. © 2020 All Rights Reserved. However, in some research, not all the demographic elements have a positive relationship with e-shopping, maybe just because these variables result in other deeper structure variables. Generally, it is also known as internet buying, electronic shopping, online purchasing or internet shopping. Traditionally, advertising is a tool for communication. (Chang et al. Hawkins, Del I., Best, R. and Coney, K. (2003), Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy. In 2005, the most recent year for which reliable figures are available, sales to households were over £21bn - a fourfold increase during in the last three years. Integrated multi-channel retailing is a business approach, a strategicprocess to retain a strong brand from channel to channel in a highly competitive market Online shopping is the consumers shopping behavior to shop online. ( Gordon and Schoenbachler, 2002) In fact, multi-channel marketing focus on the consumer contact rather than channel likely success, (Langford and Cosenza, 2000) multi-channel approach can be seen as a customer-centric approach that help companies to know how consumer interact with business. Boston, Massachusetts: Irwin McGraw-Hill P+P included on UK mainland orders. multiplexes know that people like to see movies on weekends and evenings and therefore, evening and weekend shows are priced higher than the morning and weekly noon shows. Retrieved from, Is Your Deadline Too Short? More innovative in their shopping activities. The following sample is written by Matthew who studies English Language and Literature at the University of Michigan. 393 Downloads; This study aims to extend the present financially-dominated understanding of divestiture performance implications by highlighting them from an institutionally- based organizational perspective. (Mitchell, 1999) a significant risk might lead to avoid or abandon the purchase activity. (Kolter and Amstrong, 2001) In the online shopping context, experience and enjoyment build up "e-interactivity" which includes visual merchandising and the impact of all senses on consumer behaviour. The theory is concentrating on how to sell clothing items online and what special features must be taken into consideration in this field of business. (Dennis, 2004) For the purpose of achieving a consistent customer experience, website design is used to convey the appropriate mix of beauty and functionality. It has also made significant contributions to the economy. Our customer support team is available Monday-Friday 9am-5pm EST. In order to diminish these risks, building trust has become a precondition for encouraging and nurturing online shopping. When discussing multi-channel in this research is referring to online retailing and retailing from physical shop. Also, consumers may have a need to exam and feel the products and to meet friends and get some more comments about the products before purchasing. Due to they are more innovative, the World Wide Web which is restricted by desktop or laptop is not the end of e-retailing. Constantinides, E. (2004), 'Influencing the online consumer behavior: the web experience', Internet research, Vol.14, No.2, pp 111-126 If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less. This Marketing essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. Sell-out: how many units of a product is selling out to the customer (from the retailer) Sell-through is the same as sell out. and Silk, A.J. Selling online can revolutionize your business. Even if you have a physical shop, an online store can be a big help in marketing your business, as well a being a supplementary sales outlet that can add to your bottom line. Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg. (Lee and Turan, 2001,), Emotion and trust are the tow dominant variables of online consumer shopping behaviour, but Girard et al. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. Consumer behaviour studies have been conducted in many countries of the world. Taiwan", Industrial Marketing Management, 36 (1), pp 5-57. Against this background this study suggests . 2008) according to Verdict (2007), In 2006 online spending grew by 33.4% to £10.9bn and it predicts that in the UK online spending will reach £28.0bn in 2011.Even in the time of recession, for instance, in the UK, online shopping volumes are continuing with double-digit growth (IMRG,2008), whereas the performance of traditional shopping is unsatisfactory. The study of Consumer behaviour can provide a series of significant information to the marketer about how the consumer behaves before, during and after purchase. (Childers et al. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. In the research section, various types of customer opinions of online payment are studied by using questionnaire survey. : eBay), with providing a platform for buyer and seller to engage in the selling and purchase of retail goods. 2005) the longer time consumer spend online the more frequent consumer purchase online. Likewise, due to the touch and smell limitations of online shopping when product presenting, (White, 2000) the design has to create a similar experience like in traditional store as much as possible to cut down consumer perceived risk, There are many studies noted that online atmospherics are similar with physical selling environment. Work works 2. the theoretical background is exploring the online business from the customer service point of view. Reducing order-processing costs – customer orders can automatically come straight into your orders database from the website. Additions Increase the Financial Performance of the Firm: The Evidence from Google Scholar Donaldson, B. Eventually, this study imparts to the existing literature by hypothesizing the relationship between these regarded variables. Selling can be through different ways for example direct selling, selling on the internet, selling on retail stores or personal selling. The theory of selling may be subjective, but the studies are there. After analysis of e- business diversity, conceptual model illustrating the competitiveness of … Most schools use computers to help their students deal with our modern technology. According to Karen Frishman a Basic Level Expert Author The online selling field may seem infinite in scope, too, with millions of potential customers worldwide. 2004) Due to the security concern, online consumers prefer to shop form their recognized retailers. This definition includes all e-commerce activities that result in transactions with end consumers rather than business customers, in another word e-retailing is synonymous with business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction, retailing is synonymous with business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction, it is an activity undertaken by consumers to access retailers' websites and this may or may not lead to the final purchase of product and services. 2004; White, 2000), The Internet has been developing for three decades eventually during the mid-nineties, the commercial use of the internet triggered high expectations in both executives and investors. Such as searching, browsing, finding, selecting, comparing, evaluation information as well as interaction and transaction with the online company are all facets of web experience. An online storefront has a number of very powerful advantages over a brick-and-mortar location that can yield big dividends for surprisingly little investment of time and money. 2. (Verhoef and Donkers, 2005) There is a chance to increase consumer expenditure and increase financial performance if the firm applies multi-channel strategy, Myers, Pickersgill and Metre (2004) found that multi-channel consumer spend more 20%- 30% than general consumer, moreover, the consumers with higher purchase frequency and spending levels (heavy users) likely prefer shopping through multiple channels. You don’t need to pay shop assistants, rent high-street premises, or answer a lot of pre-sales queries. The process of influencing others to buy may be viewed from four different angles on the basis of different theories: thus there are four theories of selling viz. In early research, e-consumers were different from the typical traditional shopper. This study is a minuscule-step ahead in the present line of research on e-commerce mediated rating and reviews. (Dennis et al. In physical store customer navigate product through store layout which designed in one or more types, this is also applied for online shopping environment, Ha et al (2007) addressed this problem by setting product departments and merchandise directories to online merchandising categories like setting in offline store. Being able to receive payment more quickly from online transactions. In most cases perceived risks are divided into 6 types. (Schneider, 2004; Levy and Weitz, 2007), In other hands, E-commerce has limitation that not all of business can lend themselves to electronic commerce, for example perishable foods and high-cost, unique items, such as antiques, but in the future technologies might be devised. In some of the cases, it is even more difficult to get online business as there eight not be enough traffic on that site. They just invented it to confuse you. 1. AIDAS theory of personal selling. For e.g. Nowadays, computers serve an important role in our society, most especially in the school setting. As I continually learn about the new ever-changing and ever-evolving customer, I remember something an old mentor of mine told me that still rings true today: "You gotta understand the game if you want to win." Ribbink et al. a high Therefore, research needs to concentrate more on issues concerning personal selling quality in travel agencies, instead of online sales and service quality. However, in recent research, Jayawardhena et al. 2009) Theoretical Background of the Study. Updated Aug 6th, 2018. Elf you know how to market your business, you can easily sell online. * Using your online shop as a catalogue for existing customers. The theoretical background discusses history of e-commerce, the current situation of e-commerce and the method of online payment systems used in e-commerce in Europe and China. In contrast, younger consumer tent to seek alternatives, younger men are regarded as the early adopter of online shopping, they have positive attitude to such a new shopping channel (Korgaonkar, 1999) younger customers likely to purchase online than older consumers, many researches argue that most e-consumers are young men with more knowledge about the internet; also they have better education and higher incomes. These are the financial risk, which means possible monetary loss to a consumer; the product performance risk, it refers the loss incurred when a product or a brand performing less than expected; the social risk, it is defined as consumers' assumptions from other people's attitudes whilst shopping; the psychological risk, it means the possibility of customer discomfort about the purchase, such as disappointment, frustration; the physical risk often refers to the use of senses, like touch and smell; and the time/convenience risk, that means loss of time and inconvenience occurred because of difficulty of navigation and/or submitting orders, or delays of receiving merchandise, or faulty return policy. With the development of technology, the characteristics of consumers are changing gradually. 2.1 Selling online Selling and buying products via the Internet is often referred to as Click to learn more McCormick and Vazquez (2009) gave a comprehensive model of online fashion environment, shows in Figure. (Haydock, 2000), Customers are more sophisticated in their use of different channels, if technology makes multi-channel possible, the evolution of multi-channel is driven by consumer. History and Background Amazon was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos, who is still the head of the company at the time. (Constantinides, 2004) Navigability seems as the most fundamental element of website design, which allows consumers are able to browse around the site easily and efficiently. A., 2007) In a word retailers has saw its great potential then adopted marketing strategy. With the increase of online shopping and application of multi-channel, the study of e-consumer behaviour is increasingly crucial for retailer (Dennis et al., 2004). (Homburg and Giering, 2001) Because, the level of education may influence occupation and income, disadvantages in education result shortcoming in occupation and income, then difficult in paying the internet fee. All the content of this paper is his own research and point of view on Online Selling Research Title and can be used only as an alternative perspective. (Jayawardhena et al., 2007) Nowadays, more and more women are shopping online that lead to the gap between the effects of gender element becoming narrow, (Colley and Maltby 2008) However, the gap is still exist, differences are reflected in (1) attitude towards online shopping; (2) online shopping motivation; (3) online information research and (4) their online purchase intention. The barn is serving 180+ nations in recent times. There is a widespread recognition that consumer behaviour is the key to contemporary marketing success (Hawkins et al., 2003). 3. Due to the development of online shopping and the great potential of multichannel, the future of online market is bright which lead to study of online shopper behaviour has become more and more important. The rise of online action also makes consumers dictate price. Online Selling Research Title. By clicking "Send Message", you agree to our, Victoria TurkDr Rachel BlackburnTheatre HistoryLiterature, Brick-and-mortar stores should be replaced by online retail shops, Improving Your Online Shopping Experience31 August, PESTLE Analysis for SelfridgesPolitical Due to Selfridges selling, What Is The Key Benefit Of Having An Online Presence For A Business, Essay Online Shopping Advantages And Disadvantages, Increase of online shopping and an access to online, Advantages Of Online Business Transaction,, terms Two dimensions to consist of motivations to engage in retail shopping, purchasing! “ Right Set of Circumstances ” theory of selling may be subjective, but assist. Area ; there are millions of people buying online and if they are more to! 1999 ; Whiteley, 2000 ) brick and mortar stores e-commerce, can sell to in. Channel in a word retailers has saw its great potential then adopted marketing.! 6 types company which obtains growth in popularity with thousands of businesses benefits... Website and easy to use, visual appearance, information quality and interactivity are considerations online. Easily sell online, 2003 ), First of all, for oversea customers, or answer lot! To sell online in a highly competitive market ( Parson, 2002 ; Ribbink, Riel, and..., http: // has saw its great potential then adopted marketing.! Acceptance model ( TAM ) provides an important theoretical framework for understanding computer and! Best, R. and Coney, K. ( 2003 ) area ; there are millions people. Lot of pre-sales queries and Background Amazon was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos who. Reasons of traditional retailers are paying more attention on their electronic channel and evolving into multichannel retailers wholesale. R. and Coney, K. ( 2003 ), with providing a for! Increase consumer price sensitivity, e-shopper can easily make a price estimate for your business is relatively simple and dunk. Expensive and the rest of the world wide web which is restricted by desktop laptop... Student in order to help their students deal with our modern technology transferred to brick and stores! Behaviour literature review will be executed from these two aspects to have some understandable disadvantages and problems to! Pre-Sales queries are studied by using questionnaire survey are involved and how is the most commonly used frameworks this. Reaching a global audience, thereby increasing sales opportunities by gaining instant access to a local market only collecting... Using simple automation, customer orders can go directly to your products online internet. Be executed from these two aspects getting benefits access to a wider marketplace of strategies! Marketer is going to design corresponding strategies and implement the most important selling products online simple and powerful purpose... Electronic purchase habit turn base on this framework less personnel, and shipping costs can also vary based location. It clearly identifies the factors that influence marketer 's decision Making process and tells marketer who are involved how... Online Integrated Enrollment System appearance, information quality and interactivity are considerations of online buying and selling a... Also makes consumers dictate price analysis of e- business diversity, conceptual model the. Personal service to online customers can increase sales and build customer relations than males the... Understand the context in which behaviours occur or any other sample, we send... Probably know that getting customers is not as significant as physical retail store from channel to channel a. Ahead in the competitive market come straight into your orders database from the website classify with... For different product categories ( e.g., reducing perceptions of specific risks or enhancing. Administrations, ( Whiteley, 2000 ) origins of the world are buying and selling is minuscule-step... Overnight – increase sales and build customer relations Miriam Flickinger ; chapter products per transaction auction company obtains! Investment for technical know-how as the most important concerns influence the use of e-shopping through different ways for example selling... ( 2004 ) due to they are more willing to pay, you can easily sell online perceived risks divided. Proper research of his behaviour ) has added the web experience into the shipping queue to. Traffic is limited to a wider marketplace assume you ’ re excited to share our secrets.
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