Book 5--- 54 B.C. Because of Caesar’s relationship with Marius, Sulla stripped Caesar of his inheritance and his wife’s dowry, forcing him to flee Rome and join the Roman army in Asia Minor. The battle turned into a desperate fight for survival that continued into the twilight hours. The siege of Alesia, which Caesar recounted in his Commentaries, is considered one of his greatest military achievements as well as being a classic example of successful siege warfare. However, the campaign nearly ended in disaster when bad weather wrecked much of his fleet and the sight of massed British chariots caused confusion among his men. > From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) Using Coins as Sources ... allowing students to quickly identify material relevant to Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate, the relationship between… < Read less Read more > Contents. Cynthia Damon has produced a fresh English edition of Caesar’s Civil War that was decades (or centuries!) In January 49 B.C., he led his legion across the shallow Rubicon River and entered Italy – a virtual declaration of war against the Roman Republic. Years later, Cicero, himself a famous orator, asked: “Do you know any man who, even if he has concentrated on the art of oratory to the exclusion of all else, can speak better than Caesar?”. Then in 57 B.C., he marched with eight legions, archers and cavalry against the Belgae (who occupied an area roughly comprising modern-day Belgium) after they attacked a tribe allied with Rome. Book 3--- 56 B.C. Caesar, The Civil War, 1–32 Translated by John Carter (2016). Caesar’s army was almost out of supplies and had no clear line of retreat, while Pompey’s soldiers held the high ground, were far more numerous and better supplied. But by moving to Alesia, Vercingetorix had played to his enemy’s strength – Caesar was a master of siege warfare. When he reached the river, three-fourths of the Helvetii force had already crossed. Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Roman Senate. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Caesar sent in his yet uncommitted third line to reinforce the fatigued troops, and Pompey’s remaining soldiers fled the field. Before Caesar had even left Rome to take up his duties in Gaul, he received word that the Helvetii tribe had begun migrating west toward the Atlantic coast, burning their villages behind them. Caesar personally rode along the perimeter inspiring his legionaries as the two-sided battle raged. Martin Van Buren, 8th president in the United States--and the first born in the United States. The second wall, designed to protect the Roman besiegers from attacks from outside the city, was the same as the first in design but included four cavalry camps. Caesar, who throughout his military career relied heavily on his engineers, then began fortifying his position behind the river with a 16-foot-high rampart and a parallel trench lined with ballistae (large missile weapons). One historian wrote: “Caesar, next to Alexander, was the outstanding director of siege operations of the ancient world.” Caesar proved that claim at the siege of Alesia. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento covered by Books 1–8 of The Landmark Julius Caesar, the civil war of 49 and 48 by Books 9–11, wars in Egypt, Anatolia and other parts of the Roman empire in 47 by Book 12 (Alexandrian War), the second round of the civil wars in 46 by Book 13 (African War), and the last round of the civil wars in 45 by Book 14 (Spanish War). The differences in manuscripts can include. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Vercingetorix was taken to Rome, where he was held for six years before being put on display during Caesar’s 46 B.C. Caesar then ordered the construction of a second line of fortifications facing outward (contravallation), enclosing his army between it and the inner set of fortifications. He then took 13 cavalry cohorts (about 6,000 men) to attack the relief army, forcing it to retreat. While this happened, the Boii and Tulingi, Helvetii allies who had been held in reserve, joined the battle by hitting Caesar’s right flank. triumph celebration – and then executed by strangulation. The identities of the latter are unknown, but all appear to … The Aedui, a tribe Caesar had saved from Germanic deprecation, had turned against him, joining the revolt and capturing his supplies and Roman base at Soissons. Meanwhile, the Helvetii had begun pillaging the land of tribes aligned with Rome. Bibracte was the first great battle of Caesar’s military career. Unopposed, Caesar marched triumphantly into Rome, where he was declared dictator; but he had still to defeat the optimate force. At Pharsalus, however, Caesar’s soldiers confronted other disciplined Roman legionaries in a battle certain to decide the outcome of a brutal civil war. Intervention by the family of Caesar’s mother and Rome’s Vestal Virgins lifted the threat against Caesar; but it was not until he heard of Sulla’s death in 78 B.C. The Pompeian cavalry quickly overwhelmed the outnumbered Caesarian horse but then ran into Caesar’s favorite legion, the X, which Caesar had purposely stationed at the end of the line to meet the enemy cavalry. When he reached the town of Geneva, near the planned route of the Helvetii, he began destruction of a bridge over the Rhone River in territory belonging to a Roman client tribe, the Allobroges. Caesar responded by thinning the traditional Roman three-line infantry formation and creating a fourth line hidden behind the other three. Armed mobs rule the streets. He cleverly exploited the tribes’ endemic factionalism, made allies by showing mercy to the tribes he defeated, and bribed others with the fruits of Roman civilization – and when necessary, he waged war against them. In his Commentaries, he remarked, “No single traveler had ever crossed [these mountains] in winter.”. The X’s men, rather than hurl their pila at the cavalry attack and then chop at the horses’ legs with their gladii (the traditional Roman defense against a cavalry attack), stabbed at the faces and eyes of the horsemen with their pila as Caesar had drilled them to do. CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. crossing of the Rubicon River with his XIII Legion in defiance of the Pompey-led Senate’s order would be decided by this day’s battle. Similar Posts: Book 1--- 50 B.C. Yet he was aware of the role that luck played in his victories. Chuck Lyons is a retired newspaper editor and a freelance writer who has written extensively on historical subjects. Vercingetorix’s cavalry unsuccessfully raided the construction several times, but his men were unable to stop the work. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. He stationed himself at the hill’s summit with two other legions, his auxiliaries and his baggage train. Caesar moved quickly into Gaul, creating auxiliary units as he went. Sulla’s victims included Caesar’s uncle, the general and seven-time consul Gaius Marius. Chapter 1 While these things were going forward in Spain, Caius Trebonius, Caesar's lieutenant, who had been left to conduct the assault of Massilia, began to raise a mound, vineae, and turrets against the town, on two sides; one of which was next the harbor and docks, the other on that part where there is a passage from Gaul and Spain to that sea which forces itself up the mouth of the Rhone. Pompey’s infantry would hold Caesar’s opposing infantry in place while the Pompeian cavalry swept around the end of the Roman line in an outflanking maneuver. The Civil Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [145k] Book 2 [83k] Book 3 [187k] Download: A 301k text-only version is available for download. The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. He only was able to turn the conflict when he commandeered a shield from a soldier and personally rallied his legions, forming a large defensive square to protect his wounded and calling for reinforcements. They surrendered and begged for mercy. After sifting through 32,577 words of Caesar’s Civil War across more than 200 manuscripts spread out over half a millennium, Damon has concluded that “one copy survived from antiquity into the Middle Ages and was copied at least twice some time early in the Carolingian period.”3. However, a larger and more serious uprising erupted in 52 B.C. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. Pompey’s two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, and their supporters tried to continue the civil war, but the effort was futile. Caesar knew that the imminent battle was his last chance, warning his men that if they lost at Pharsalus they would be at Pompey’s mercy and probably slaughtered. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. Later and more reliable estimates judge that Caesar lost about 1,200 soldiers and 30 centurions, while Pompey’s losses totaled about 6,000. Led by Pompey and his optimates (conservative supporters), the Senate fled Rome, first to Brundisium in southern Italy and then across the Adriatic Sea to Rome’s Greek provinces. Unfortunately, Virginia Brown passed away before she completed her research, but she handed her work to Cynthia Damon who finished it and pieced together a new Latin edition, which she chronicled in Studies on the Text of Caesar’s Bellum civile (2015). About midday, the Helvetii force, said to be tens of thousands of experienced warriors, appeared and stood facing the smaller and far less combat-experienced Roman force. Winning the war, Caesar became Roman dictator for life. Book 2--- 57 B.C. But at Gergovia, Vercingetorix defeated Caesar, inflicting heavy losses including 46 veteran centurions (commanders of an 80-100 man unit in a Roman legion). The tactical advantages seemed greatly in Pompey’s favor. The Romans rightly feared that the Helvetii would pillage other tribes as they migrated, and that once settled in southwest Gaul they would pose a threat to Roman territory. Civil Wars. Pompey gathered his family, loaded as much gold as he could, threw off his general’s cloak and fled. Morgan J. Freeman, film director; his Hurricane Streets (1997) was the first narrative film to win three awards at the Sundance Film Festival; produced MTV reality shows (16 and Pregnant, Teen Mom). Due to his many wounded and the need to bury his dead, Caesar had to wait three days before he could pursue the fleeing Helvetii, but he finally caught them. Caesar sent away his horse – a signal to his troops that he would stand with them. His work has appeared in numerous national and international periodicals. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. “There was such a passion among the Gauls for liberty,” Caesar wrote, “that [nothing] could hold them back from throwing themselves with all their heart and soul into the fight for freedom.”. A Fresh Translation of Caesar’s Civil War, 8 Books for the Military History Undergrad, Studies on the Text of Caesar's Bellum civile, Gettysburg After Action Report – September 10, 2017, The Hannibal History Channel Doesn’t Want You to Know, Bodies Piling up at the Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC), Book Review: Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life, Misspellings, including inversions of letters, missing letters, repetition, Errors from abbreviations, which were outmoded or simply different, Method of dividing books, such as using headers, numbers, or a giant letter, Diving the text, such as 14 books instead of 3, “Improvements,” corrections by multiple hands on the same manuscript, Virginia Brown, “Caesar, Gaius Julius” in. Book 3--- 48-47 B.C. Caesar would prove the value of a dog's role in war several times over the course of his service in World War II. That same year, Caesar launched an amphibious campaign that took his forces to Britain. Then he ordered his legionaries to charge. He routed those remaining on his side of the Arar, killing many of them and driving the rest into the woods. Finally, however, on August 9 Pompey and his army seemed ready to fight – and with a glance Caesar realized what his enemy was planning. He also was authorized to levy additional legions and auxiliary forces as needed. From that single source, Damon traced 1,000 disagreements across hundreds of medieval manuscripts of the Civil War and reconstructed a single version of the text.4 As a result, we now have a new Latin version of the Caesar’s work where the number of spots of lost or uncertain text is down to a few dozen.5 And with that, Damon has produced a fresh English translation, the first based on this new Latin version. The charging cavalry, meeting this unexpected and terrifying menace, pulled up short and then panicked. Finally on August 2, Caesar has cut off the enemy from water, fuel, and food, and they surrender. He met them at the River Sabis (today’s Sambre), where he almost lost the battle that raged along its shore. While the notion of such changes may offend our sense of historical purity, these differences can help detectives such as Virginia Brown and Cynthia Damon determine if manuscript A was used to create a copy of manuscript B, and so forth. Caesar’s men then focused on Pompey’s camp. He sent his cavalry to delay the enemy and placed four legions in the traditional Roman three-line formation partway up the hill. Caesar later served as questor (a treasury and legal official) in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain), where he led military expeditions against the native tribes and in 59 B.C. Like most ancient texts, we do not have a pristine copy of Caesar's Civil War handed down to us from antiquity. 1:0 Vossius's supplement to the first book: I will now say nothing concerning the absurd opinion of those who assert that the following Commentaries on the Civil War were not written by Caesar himself. Caesar’s next campaign, however, was against his fellow Romans. Below you can see how Brown’s stemma varied from 2 previous attempts at tracing the transmission of Caesar’s Civil War.2 These stemmas simplify a tedious and laborious effort, but they all have the goal of getting to a single source. A military leader of legendary genius, Caesar was also a great writer, recording the events of his life with incomparable immediacy and power. The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Caesar next pacified the Suebi, a Germanic tribe, killing most of the 120,000-man force sent against him. At the time, Roman legions were noted for their tactical flexibility, disciplined fighting, ability to adapt to changing circumstances and superb organization; but “what ultimately made the Romans unbeatable,” one historian wrote, was “the Roman genius for fighting as a unit.” To this proven mix, Caesar added his charisma, daring and ability to inspire. Gaius Julius Caesar was born in July 100 B.C. According to figures claimed at the time, when the day was over 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed and another 20,000 were captured, while Caesar lost only 200 men. Lyons resides in Rochester, N.Y., with his wife, Brenda, and a beagle named Gus. Interesting. Later Campaigns - Not written by Caesar. Sharpened stakes were jammed into the ground near the wall, and guard towers were erected every 80 feet. Caesar spent the next few years “mopping up” remnants of the Pompeian faction and then returned to Rome and was reaffirmed as Rome’s dictator. Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. This allowed Caesar’s soldiers to have, as one historian wrote, “the impetus of the charge inspire them with courage.” Caesar’s men threw their pila, pulled their gladii and crashed into the Pompeian shield wall. He withdrew from Britain but returned in 54 B.C. In 55 B.C., Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed that by building a bridge across the Rhine. Vercingetorix moved a large part of his force by night to a weak spot in the northwest portion of the Roman fortifications that Caesar had tried to conceal; the area featured natural obstructions where a continuous wall could not be built. In a quick reversal, the fleeing Helvetii suddenly turned and began to pursue the Romans, harassing their rear guard. Soon, many of the warriors found themselves all but helpless to lift their now heavily laden shields. As Caesar had foreseen, when the lines collided Pompey loosed his 7,000 cavalrymen at the end of the Roman line. Inside Alesia, Vercingetorix gave his men a day’s rest before again throwing their might against the Roman wall with scaling ladders and grappling hooks. Joan Didion, essayist and novelist (Slouching Towards Bethlehem, Play it as it Lays). Caesar, Julius; Peskett ... Rome -- History Civil War, 49-45 B.C Publisher London Heinemann Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Contributor Robarts - University of Toronto Language English. involving the Arverni and allied tribes led by the Arverni chief Vercingetorix. The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. Book 6--- 53 B.C. The Romans pursued Vercingetorix and captured Avaricum (modern Bourges, in central France), the capital city of the allied Bituriges, killing the entire population. 58–50 B.C.E. Instead, Caesar marched from Gaul with the XIII Legion. In reviewing the differences and similarities between manuscripts, the goal is to get to the oldest version of the text. Curio's disaster in Africa. All were either sold into slavery or given as booty to Caesar’s legionaries, except for the members of the Aedui and Arverni tribes. Knowing the city was immune to direct attack and again relying on his engineers, Caesar began construction of an encircling set of fortifications (circumvallation) around Alesia. Defeat of Varro. into a patrician family that claimed to be descended from Julus, son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who in turn was the supposed son of the goddess Venus. The day’s fighting was over. Again, Caesar personally rode to the spot to rally his troops and his inspired legionaries were able to beat back the Gallic attack. In what would become his trademark, Caesar spared the Helvetii survivors and ordered them to return to their original homeland. Total War: ROME II – Caesar Edition is a limited physical edition release of Total War: ROME II celebrating the eponymous military commander that includes two epic campaigns packs, all the latest updates, and a free ebook from Osprey Publishing. View 2_162939_Caesar_the_Civil_War_8517963156477394 (1).pdf from ENG 432 at Harvard University. crossing of the Rubicon River with his XIII Legion in defiance of the Pompey-led … The next day he presented his arms to Caesar, ending the siege in a Roman victory. This is by no means a new process and multiple historians made their own attempts at Caesar’s Civil War before Virginia Brown. At the head of these five legions, he passed through the Alps, crossing the territories of several hostile tribes and fighting some skirmishes en route. Book II Siege and surrender of Massilia. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a … Even without the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and no other was the author. Book 7--- 52 B.C. The roots of this conflict reached back to 50 B.C., when the Roman Senate, feeling threatened by Caesar’s popularity with the Roman people in the wake of his Gallic conquests, ordered Caesar to disband his army in Gaul and return to Rome to face prosecution for several claimed offenses. Book 2--- 49 B.C. Instead, we have a slew of medieval manuscripts, copied and edited by scribes over the centuries, and now stored in archives across the world. was spent in a punitive campaign against the Eburones and their allies, who were said to have been all but exterminated by the Romans. Caesar’s civil war would continue even after Pharsalus but that was the turning point. Fritz Lang, film director (Metropolis, M). In September 52 B.C., Caesar arrived at Alesia and laid siege to a combined Gallic force that may have numbered 80,000 warriors, four times greater than Caesar’s force. The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). The best account is provided by Caesar's War Commentaries in three books covering 49-48, supplemented by separate accounts of the Alexandrian War, African War and Spanish War written by his continuators. Approximately 10 miles of 12-foot-high palisades were built in about three weeks. In the morning, Vercingetorix sent a diversionary attack against the wall to the south and then struck the Roman weak spot with men he had hidden there and remnants of the relief force. When the 20,000 seasoned veterans of Caesar’s infantry line charged, Pompey’s 50,000 infantrymen held their positions awaiting the collision. Although the proconsular term of office normally was one year, Caesar was able to secure his post in Gaul for an unprecedented five years, a term later increased to 10 years. The First Triumvirate - overseers of the last days of the Roman Republic - has disintegrated. Moreover, the Germanic tribes likely would move into the abandoned Helvetii homeland, posing another threat to Roman interests. The Civil War is well documented by the standards of ancient conflicts, but there remain many gaps in our knowledge. All rights reserved. Enough of the Gallic horsemen escaped, however, to ride for help. On August 9, 48 B.C., nearly four years after Caesar won Gaul with his victory at Alesia, he stood surveying Pompey’s much larger army at Pharsalus in Roman-ruled central Greece. But have you red it and has there been any improvements/interesting things you noticed compared to prior translations? Then, rather than use the high ground for a defensive stand, he moved forward against the Helvetii. Facing starvation and plummeting morale inside Alesia, Vercingetorix was forced to surrender. George Armstrong Custer, Union cavalry leader who met his fate at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. In the Gallic camp, Caesar found records indicating that more than 300,000 Helvetii men, women and children had begun the trek west. Caught on the wrong side of the mountains from Vercingetorix when winter hit, Caesar crossed the “impassable” Massif Central with a small force of infantry and cavalry to link up with two of his legions quartered near the southern edge of Arvenni territory. From 82 to 80 B.C., Lucius Cornelius Sulla made himself dictator of Rome and purged the city of his political enemies. For example, if two separate manuscripts use the same abbreviations or misspellings, then one was likely used to produce the other. It was August 9, 48 B.C. Originally published in the July 2013 issue of Armchair General. He later went to Egypt, where he became involved in the Egyptian civil war and installed Cleopatra on Egypt’s throne. Anglo-Zulu War 1879 The Crimean War 1853-1856 The Plains Wars 1850s-1890s French Indian War 1754-1763 The Mahdist Revolt 1884 American Civil War 1861-1865 American War of Ind. James Cleveland, considered the "King of Gospel.". Again the Gauls were beaten back. Caesar chose to stop and fight at a hill near a Gallic oppidum (fortified city) at Bibracte. Civil War Politics in Rome became increasingly hostile while Caesar was in Gaul. Copyright © 2020 Scott Manning. II.1- 2 … The Hunt for Julius Caesar’s Assassins Marked the Last Days of the Roman Republic A new page-turning history details the events that led to the deaths of many of the conspirators Turning to aid the Roman-allied tribes, Caesar met the Helvetii as they were crossing the River Arar (modern-day Saône River, in eastern France). In textual criticism, scholars use stemmas (family trees) to trace the lineage of major versions of manuscripts. “[The Belgae] never gave up even when there was no hope of victory,” Caesar wrote. Alea iacta est... 49 B.C. Seven cohorts of Pompey-allied Thracians and other auxiliaries defended the camp as best they could but were unable to fend off Caesar’s legionaries. He warned the Helvetii that any attempt to cross the river would be opposed. with a much larger force that successfully defeated the powerful Catuvellauni, whom he forced to pay tribute to Rome. The outcome of the bitter civil war that began with Caesar’s January 49 B.C. When the Helvetii saw their allies attack, they returned to the battle. Caesar’s father, also named Gaius Julius Caesar, had served Rome as the city’s praetor (military or civilian commander) and as proconsul (governor) to Asia, while his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential Roman family. This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. Caesar’s use of projectile weapons (such as ballistae) along with archers and peltasts enabled him to turn the battle in his favor. Julius Caesar ruled Rome as unquestioned dictator until his assassination March 15, 44 B.C. Again, Caesar demonstrates great leniency to the soldiers and to their leaders. On October 2, Vercingetorix’s Gauls launched a massive attack from inside the Roman fortifications while a relief army hit the Romans from outside. Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. He gave them grain to eat and seed to begin a crop, but he insisted on hostages to insure their obedience. Julius Caesar - Julius Caesar - Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bce: During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. Trace the lineage of major versions of manuscripts Rome in Gaul original homeland beat back the Gallic.... Armchair general already outnumbered force to fight the Helvetii saw their allies attack, they made alliances with XIII... 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